Foraminal Stenosis

At every level of the spine the nerves will exit through a small canal. This canal is called the foramen or foraminal canal. Foraminal stenosis is a narrowing of this canal.

Constriction of the nerve roots leaving the spine in the foraminal canal is typically caused by bone spurs, a herniated or bulging disc, arthritis or ligament thickening. Foraminal Stenosis can also be caused by enlargement of a joint (the uncinate process) in the spinal canal.

Foraminal Stenosis can produce a type of pain called radicular pain which is pain that radiates into the lower extremity (the thigh, calf, and may spread to the foot) directly along the course of a specific spinal nerve root. It is often deep, steady and reproducible with certain activities such as sitting or walking, and follows the involved area of distribution of the leg covered by the specific nerve. It can be accompanied by numbness and tingling, muscle weakness and loss of specific reflexes.

The most common cause of radicular pain is sciatica (pain that radiates along the sciatic nerve - down the back of the thigh and calf into the foot).Radicular pain is secondary to compression, inflammation and/or injury to a spinal nerve root.

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Degenerative Disc Disease

As we age, the water and protein content of the body's cartilage changes. This change results in weaker, more fragile and thin cartilage. Because both the discs and the joints that stack the vertebrae (facet joints) are partially composed of cartilage, these areas are subject to wear and tear over time (degenerative changes). The gradual deterioration of the disc between the vertebrae is referred to as Degenerative Disc Disease.


Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Carpal tunnel syndrome is a condition in which the median nerve becomes pinched or squeezed as it passes through the wrist.